By Lynn Stasick, Preservation Alliance Statewide Field Representative
Oftentimes, when devastating events such as fires occur, what to do and where to turn can be both overwhelming and daunting for the stewards of historic properties. It is important to remember however, that the restoration, preservation, and adaptive re-use of a building should be viewed as a series of inter-connected baby-steps taken one step at a time. This helps to calm the spirit and clear the head, which aids in moving toward the project’s completion.
In my capacity as Field Representative, I met with Tom and Margaret to survey the house and open up a discussion as to their plans for saving the building. It was then that they expressed the need for some guidance. Through further discussion, we agreed that I would act through PAWV as an agent on their behalf in an effort to gather estimates to have repairs made. In the past months I have done so.
Although it is PAWV’s mission to help with the saving of West Virginia’s historic properties, it is always refreshing to receive a message like the Feasters sent in thanks for our efforts.
“A note to express our appreciation for your assistance in the Abruzzino Mansion project. . . . The situation was completely overwhelming for us. . . . Without your assistance we would still be wondering where to start. . . .You have taken the lead in starting the job and got it moving while we were still thinking about it. . . . As it is now, the electricity has been re-connected and we have bids to seal the roof.”
It is true that projects such as this take other people’s input and expertise. However, a voice of thanks should be given to the Feasters and others like them for their dedication to preserving West Virginia’s precious heritage sites not only for our enjoyment and edification, but that of generations to come.
For more information on the 2013 WV Endangered Properties, visit http://pawv.org/endangedlist2013.htm.
By Bekah Karelis & Liz Paulhus
February is traditionally a time of love; a time when people shower those they care about with flowers, candy, and thoughtful, heart-shaped gifts. In Wheeling, a group of young preservation enthusiasts are expressing their love this Valentine’s Day . . . not for each other, but for a group of historic downtown buildings that they love.
The Ohio Valley Young Preservationists (OVYP) launched the inaugural “All We Need is Love” campaign this month. Inspired by Buffalo’s Young Preservationists’ “heart-bomb” project, and in the spirit of Valentine’s Day, OVYP’s Bekah Karelis and Liz Paulhus envisioned “lovescaping” downtown Wheeling with a week-long, heart-felt demonstration of their love of history, architecture, and the spirit of the city’s historic downtown.
OVYP soon had a list of several dozen buildings within a large section of the Wheeling Historic District (a.k.a. downtown Wheeling). Members reached out to the community and invited high school classes, colleges, businesses, organizations, and families to “adopt” a building and decorate it on a temporary basis with hearts and other Valentine’s Day decorations. OVYP encouraged adopters to learn about the history of their building and incorporate it into the decorations. For example, the former King’s jewelry store has diamond-studded hearts with the saying “I was loved by kings!”, a former bank, “Tall, dark and handsome!”, and the former Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel building, which is currently for sale, sports hearts saying, “Brace Yourself. I’m a Steel!”
Wheeling has lost many structures on Main and Market Streets in the years since the beginning of the city’s economic decline. Most recently, the city demolished a block of buildings in the heart of downtown, and OVYP is concerned about the fate of the remaining structures. The aim of “All We Need Is Love” is to educate the broader public about the incredible history of downtown Wheeling and to show that there are individuals who love these old places and prefer to see them rehabilitated and restored, rather than fall to the wrecking ball.
Click HERE to read about the project from a crafter’s perspective, and HERE’s an article from the local newspaper, the Intelligencer.
The Ohio Valley Young Preservationists formed in October 2012. This group of young individuals (including all who are “young at heart”) from diverse backgrounds – historians, archivists, teachers, real estate developers, preservationists, artists, urban farmers, masons, and policy wonks – share the common goal of preserving the history, culture, and buildings of Wheeling and the greater Ohio Valley.
Learn more about the Ohio Valley Young Preservationists at http://www.ovyp.org/ or on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/OVYoungPreservationists
Refusing defeat, activist groups including the Sierra Club, West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition, Friends of Blair Mountain, West Virginia Labor History Association and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, continue their work to protect Blair Mountain Battlefield in Logan County from mountaintop removal.
(Scroll down for a video about the historic significance of the site).
On Thursday, November 29, 2012, activists filed an appeal to challenge an October 2,2012 ruling in a U.S. District court in Washington D.C. that declined to address the groups’ claims that Blair Mountain Battlefield – the site of the largest civil insurrection in the United States since the Civil War – was unlawfully removed from the National Register of Historic Places and denied their efforts to list the battlefield back in the National Register. In December 2009, the National Park Service de-listed the 1600-acre battlefield because property owners objected. These activist groups sued to have that status restored in October, but they lost the court challenge after it was ruled that the groups lacked legal standing and that there was insufficient proof an imminent threat of coal mining at the site.
The October court decision ignored abundant evidence that coal mining companies, including Missouri-based Arch Coal Company, have been applying for permits to strip mine mountains in Boone and Logan Counties in southwestern West Virginia.
Having the 1921 battlefield listed in the National Register of Historic Places does not protect or preserve the site for perpetuity. Once properties are listed in the National Register, any federally-proposed work, permitting or monies cannot be issued until the proposed project undergoes a Section 106 Review Process. Under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on historic properties, consult with concerned parties and provide interested individuals and groups, as well as the federal Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) the opportunity to comment on proposed actions. When it is determined that these proposed projects will harm historic properties – as in the strip mining permits at Blair Mountain – Section 106 review usually ends with a legally-binding agreement that establishes how the Federal agency will address the adverse effects. In the few cases where this does not occur, and the ACHP issues advisory comments, the head of the Federal agency must consider the comments in making a final decision.
Section 106 is a very important tool for historic preservationists, and it gives us a chance to work with businesses and government agencies and create a cooperative agreement.
For more information on the details of Section 106, visit
In 2010, Preservation Alliance of WV listed the Old Greenbrier Count Library on the WV Endangered Properties List, a collection of at-risk historic properties worthy of being saved. The property was especially notable for its construction date of 1834 and its original use as a law library by the jurist of the State Supreme Court of Virginia. Since its listing, this property has undergone quite a transformation and is now open to benefit the community.
In October 2012, the New River Community and Technical College Greenbrier Campus celebrated the opening of the historic structure for its college library, which serves all five campuses, as well as the general public
This project began in 2007 when the old Greenbrier County Library closed its doors, and shortly thereafter the owner, the City of Lewisburg, leased the building to the New River College. This partnership has allowed for the renovation and restoration of the building with work highlights including a new roof, new heating and air conditioning system, repaired wood floors, fresh paint, and rehabilitated historic wood windows.
Preservation Alliance is delighted to see this building reopened and the project goals come to fruition. We congratulate and commend the City of Lewisburg and the New River Community and Technical College for the reuse and return of this historic gem to its library roots. It often takes many years and much convincing for city governments to see the benefits of historic preservation. The City of Lewisburg, however, is unique in that it has supported historic preservation for many decades and encourages great projects like this one. We know why you’ve been deemed America’s “Coolest Small Town.” Keep up the great work!
If you would like to comment on the future of the Blair Mountain Battlefield, you have until November 24th.
The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection is accepting public comments until November 24th about the permit renewal request for the Adkins Fork Surface Mine. The permit boundaries encompass much of the Blair Mountain Battlefield and specifically White Trace Branch and White Trace Ridge – the two most promising sites for historical and archaeological information about the miners’ army.
You can send your letters in response to Renewal of Adkins Fork Surface Mine S-5005-03 to:
West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1101 George Kostas Drive, Logan, WV 25601
If you do not know much about Blair Mountain Battlefield, please know that it is one of the most important Labor History sites in the United States and is considered to be the largest armed uprising on American soil since the Civil War. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org if you have questions about the permit.
If you would like to know more about Blair Mountain Battlefield, please continue reading.
In the early twentieth century, coal alone fueled American industry. Work stoppages threatened steel production and the railroads, and political and economic pressure to maintain order in the coalfields allowed coal companies a great deal of latitude. Increasingly, however, mine workers began to organize as a way to withstand the industry’s back-breaking demands and garner a small piece of its extraordinary profits. These efforts were consistently resisted by the coal companies, whose suppression of the unions were also supported by a widespread national fear of Bolshevism following the Russian revolution.
By 1921, southern West Virginia was ripe for violent confrontation. More than half of the state’s one hundred thousand miners were organized, but the union had largely failed to organize southern coalfields, which produced the region’s best specialty coal. The United Mine Workers of America believed that organizing the southern coalfields would improve working and living conditions for the miners, in addition to securing the survival of the union.
At the time, coal companies enjoyed a great deal of political influence, and martial law was regularly employed to quell unrest. Lacking a National Guard, martial law in West Virginia meant that local law enforcement, including “deputies” in the pay of coal companies, exercised an inordinate amount of power, enabling widespread violence against miners and their families. The governor regularly requested the support of federal troops in disputes, but was usually rebuffed by federal officials, who did not want to set a precedent for the use of the Army in times of civil unrest.
Following several violent conflicts, including those memorialized in the John Sayles film Matewan, Bill Blizzard, Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney of the District 17 United Mine Workers of America assembled 600 armed miners near Charleston for a march to Mingo County to demonstrate their solidarity, gathering additional miners to their cause as they advanced. Although no count was ever taken, it is likely that the miners’ army grew to at least 7,500, and may have surpassed 10,000. They intended to sweep through the southern counties of West Virginia, unionize workers and drive out the hired gunmen who guarded the coalfields and terrorized the miners.
Meanwhile, Logan County Sherriff Don Chafin, whose salary was heavily subsidized by coal companies, learned of the miners’ intentions and began organizing local recruits to help stop the march. Hundreds of volunteers from across southern West Virginia flocked to Logan town to “do their patriotic duty” and end the rebellion by joining Chafin and his deputies, many of whom were also in the pay of coal companies. In the end, approximately 3,000 men comprised Don Chafin’s defensive force.
The Battle of Blair Mountain took place between August 30 and September 4, 1921. Spruce Fork Ridge formed a natural dividing line between union and non-union territories. On August 30, the miners began their assault on Blair Mountain. Defensive positions blocked the miners along on the upper slopes of the ridge, with particular concentrations at the gaps: Mill Creek, Crooked Creek, Beech Creek and Blair Mountain. Here the defensive force dug trenches, felled trees, blocked roads, built breastworks and placed machine guns. Most of the hostilities between the two groups occurred along the fifteen-mile ridgeline, reflecting the miners’ use of natural pathways up and over the ridge to breach Chafin’s line.
During the battle, private planes organized by the defensive militia dropped as many as ten homemade bleach and shrapnel bombs at Jeffrey, Blair, and near the miners’ headquarters on Hewitt Creek. In Charleston, eleven Army Air Corps pilots arrived, led by Billy Mitchell, a pioneer in aerial bombardment who was eager to experiment with the strategy. While troops were used in labor disputes throughout the nation during this era, West Virginia alone bears the distinction of having been the focus – and potential target – of military aircraft. Fortunately, the Army did not allow Mitchell to bomb the miners; the military planes performed reconnaissance flights.
The end of the battle began with the arrival of federal troops on September 3. Six hundred miners, many of whom were veterans of World War I, formally surrendered rather than fight the soldiers. Far from considering the Army as an enemy, the miners considered the soldiers to be brothers and refused to fire on them. In the end, despite the valiant charges of a few miners and close-range gunfight at Blair Mountain itself, there was little face-to-face combat. Visibility was so limited by the thick, late summer underbrush that few combatants actually saw the enemy. Lon Savage, who wrote the most authoritative account of the battle, sets the number of documented deaths at sixteen–all but four from the miners’ army. But the defeat heavily damaged the UMWA, which lost members and territory in the wake of the battle.
Although they did not win the Battle of Blair Mountain, the miners accomplished a great deal in their revolt. It forced national scrutiny of their situation in the press and in the federal government. They amassed sufficient force to require intervention by the United States Army, and they broke down racial and ethnic barriers to the solidarity they would need later when they did organize. Following sanctioning legislation in the 1930s, the UMWA became the leading force in organizing the nation’s industrial workers. UMWA president John L. Lewis formed the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1937, which spearheaded the struggles for unionization in the auto, rubber, steel and other industries.
As with other wars, this battlefield must be considered an important part of a larger effort. The events at Blair Mountain are overwhelmingly significant to the history of labor in the United States, because they set in motion a national movement to better the conditions of working people by demanding the legalization of unions and the use of the federal government to protect workers’ rights.
The Cockayne Farmstead in Glen Dale, WV is a living museum, representative of the lifestyles, values and work ethic of those Americans who helped to build this State and this Nation. Behind the house is an Indian Burial Mound long protected by the Cockaynes that was reunited to the farmhouse in 2004. The purpose of the Cockayne Historic Preservation Project is to create an educational and cultural center that will benefit all West Virginians.
To move forward with this mission, the Cockayne Farmstead is concentrating on orchestrating the removal of artifacts from the main building into temporary storage, as work to stabilize the plaster is about to begin.
Volunteers are currently needed to move furniture! Moving days are primarily Thursday, November 1, and Friday, November 2. If individuals are able to help October 30th or 31st, this would also be useful. Many hands make for lighter burdens.
Work at the Farmstead will be from approximately 8:30 a.m., until dusk, (about 6:00 p.m.) each day. Please come when you can.
If interested, please contact: Tom Tarowsky Program Director Cockayne Farmstead Preservation Project 1105 Wheeling Avenue Glen Dale, WV 26038 (740-312-5086)
If you know of a cultural treasure that meets this criteria and is listed on or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places, please submit a nomination to Preservation Alliance of West Virginia (PAWV) for it to be added to West Virginia’s 2013 Endangered Properties List, a collection of historic structures, buildings and sites threatened by demolition and/or disuse.
Organizations, owners and/or individuals associated with properties listed on the Endangered Properties List receive technical assistance from PAWV. Technical assistance involves free consultation with the statewide field representative (who has over 20 years of contracting experience), in addition to help with grant writing, as well as increased notoriety and advocacy from PAWV.
Decisions for the 2013 list will be made in December of this year by PAWV staff and the Board of Directors. Nominations are accepted until November 15th. Applications can be found HERE.
Additions to the Endangered Properties List are announced at History Day every February at the State Capitol Complex in Charleston, where property nominators and preservation supporters are invited to attend a press conference and advocate with PAWV for historic preservation. Click HERE to see lists from earlier years.
For questions or to submit a nomination for a compromised historic property, please contact email@example.com or call 304.345.6005.
By Jeff Smith, Guest Contributor & AmeriCorps for Appalachian Forest Heritage Area
West Virginia is rich with natural and cultural resources. Although West Virginia’s statehood was granted in 1863, the history of her inhabitants and environs predate this particular moment in time. Most documentation that recorded the multitude of events that occurred in peoples’ lives are stored in libraries, court houses, archives and other such repositories. However, through a West Virginia Humanities Foundation grant, the public now has full access to view the wealth of documents, images, and geospatial data on their computer or similar electronic device via the West Virginia GeoExplorer Project (WVGP).
The WVGP is comprised of multiple participants including the Jefferson County Historic Landmarks Commission, ShepherdUniversity, American Public University System, the Harper’s Ferry National Historical Association, and the Middleway Conservancy among other local government offices and historical societies. These institutions have been working on this project since the West Virginia Humanities Foundation awarded the original grant in 1996.
The group’s primary function is to make available electronic access to those significant documents that pertain to the areas of history, cultural resources, and architectural resources of West Virginia, and more specifically at this point in time, Jefferson County. Documents such as the original image of the 1757 land grant from Lord Fairfax to John Abrell are viewable as is the transcription of this primary resource document. Proving online access to these land grant documents and other primary and secondary resources is a powerful tool for scholars of West Virginia or early American history as well as those tracing family genealogy while further shrinking the digital divide that still exists for those individuals who don’t own a computer or for those communities without a local history collection.
The GeoExplorer database is built upon Geograpic Information System (GIS) technology with additional layers added as the project progresses. At present, searchable fields include, but are not limited to the GIS GEOlocator information, event, author, subject/keyword, and article/book title. In addition, search results can also be filtered by these and other fields. Although still in its “infancy” stage, this project has vast potential to be the go-to resource for many users in the historic preservation community.
Preservation Achievement Award
John C. Allen, Jr.
John C. Allen, Jr. is an architectural historian dedicated to the preservation of West Virginia’s historic treasures. In the past decade, he has led a wealth of preservation projects in WV including the creation of the Beverly Heritage Center, the development of Jefferson County’s historic website and the re-activation of Jefferson County’s Historic Landmark Designation program. John has also been involved in the preservation of multiple West Virginia landmarks County Poor Farm and the Peter Burr House. All of these outstanding accomplishments are worthy of the Preservation Achievement Award, but John was chosen for this award for his work as an architectural historian and author of Uncommon Vernacular: Early Houses of Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1735-1835.
A culmination of work from an exhaustive eight-year survey of 250 of Jefferson County’s domestic buildings, John’s book is the most comprehensive, accurate, beautiful, and important study of historic houses in any county of West Virginia ever published. John not only documents the buildings with beautiful photographs, but he also connects the housing of the area to the rich history of the Shenandoah Valley in a flowing, comprehensive narrative. The book has been described as “aesthetically stunning and historically important,” and we could not agree more.
Community Preservation Award
American Public University System, Charles Town
When American Public University System decided to make its headquarters in Charles Town, WV, the school was conscious of the historic nature of the town and the unique beauty of the surrounding areas. Rather than destroy existing green space to create an “office-park-type” structure to house its offices, APUS undertook a comprehensive multi-building reuse policy in Charles Town’s downtown historic district.
In 2003, APUS purchased its first historic building for its corporate and administrative offices. Now known as Etter Hall, the mid-1800s structure was originally built as the private home of local physician Charles Taylor Richardson and eventually housed Charles Town’s first hospital. This property sat vacant for several years prior to APUS buying it, and the renovation of this building attests to the university system’s preservation spirit.
Gray Hall is prominently located at the corner of George and Congress Streets. It was built in 1940 by the Civilian Conservation Corps as part of the New Deal Program to house Charles Town’s first municipal building. APUS purchased the property in late 2004 and, after an extensive renovation utilizing historic preservation tax credits, the building is now the university’s Human Resources Department. In keeping with the Secretary of the Interior Standards for Rehabilitation, APUS preserved and restored many original key features of the building such as the original wooden double-doors and opaque glass.
In 2009 APUS acquired and preserved several more historic properties in the downtown area, including the early 20th century dwelling now known as the Dr. Leah Mildred Williams House, the Thomas Green House, and a private home built in the late 1800s by descendants of Samuel Washington, George Washington’s brother.
In creating its campus in downtown Charles Town, APUS has also bought and undertaken renovations of buildings with much shorter histories. Known at APUS as the TrefryTechnologyCenter, the former ACME grocery store was built in the 1950s and is now home to the APUS Information Technology team.
By locating its offices in the downtown historic district, APUS has been a model for new business development in a historic setting. We commend APUS for its thoughtful and sensitive approach to community preservation, enhancement, and development.
Accepting the Community Preservation Award on behalf of APUS was Dr. John Hough. Dr. Hough is the Vice President of Community College Relations and Outreach at APUS and is involved with several local organizations including the Jefferson County Black History Preservation Society, Friends of Happy Retreat, and the Ranson Economic Development Authority.
Most Significant Property Save
Fisherman’s Hall, African American Community Association of Jefferson County
Located at South West and Academy Streets in Charles Town, Fisherman’s Hall was built by the Charles Town Industrial Association in 1885 for the local tabernacle of the Grand United Order of the Galilean Fisherman, a benevolent order which stressed equality for men and women and catered to the financial and commercial needs of its members through the creation of banks and insurance companies well before the turn of the twentieth century. Built specifically to educate and to assist former slaves and their children after the Civil War, the building is one of the first examples of self-help centers among African-Americans after the end of slavery. Over the years, the building, originally known as the Morning Star Temple, has served as a Black community center and a meeting place for many groups including the Star Lodge Masons, Knights of Pythias, and American Legion Post # 63.
In the 1980s, Fisherman’s Hall suffered from neglect and disuse, but in 1994, a group of concerned citizens formed a committee to determine the building’s history and to mount an effort to both restore and preserve it. For over 18 years, the African American Community Association of Jefferson County has worked to restore the building and continues to use it as a community center for meetings, art displays, forums and educational programs. Restoration has been done in several phases and was completed in 2005, keeping four key goals in mind: youth involvement and development, health and environmental education, cultural awareness, and historical dissemination and documentation.
PAWV recognized several movers and shakers who made this project possible.
Harold Stewart honored him for being instrumental in the successful restoration of Fisherman’s Hall. Harold attended one meeting, became a member of the African American Community Association of Jefferson County, and was soon elected treasurer. As project administrator, Mr. Stewart has worked tirelessly over the years to obtain contractors’ bids while volunteering countless hours painting the building, cutting the grass, and fundraising.
James Tolbert accepted the award on behalf of the African American Community Association of Jefferson County. James has been involved in the restoration of Fisherman’s Hall since the very beginning and has served as a board of directors’ chair for many years. During his research, he has uncovered fascinating information about the building and the Galileans, which has been used in the National Register Nomination, the Charles Town walking tour, and Jefferson County’s African-American Heritage Trail.
Walton Danforth “Kip” Stowell is best known for his career with the National Park Service as an architect and historic preservationist on projects including Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Everglades National Park. In the last decades of his life, Kip made his home in Jefferson County and he had a tremendously positive impact on the community. He drew up the first architectural plans for the renovation of Fisherman’s Hall. As an expert building surveyor, Kip was able to assess the building and create specifications that would save the historical presence of the building. On Friday, we memorialized Kip as an expert in the field and for his work on historic Fisherman’s Hall with the Posthumous Lifetime Achievement Award.
Dr. Emory Kemp Lifetime Achievement Award
Over the last 35 years, David Kemnitzer has been a model historic preservation architect and is recognized both domestically and internationally as an expert and lecturer on best practices in historic preservation. PAWV honored David for his stunning and on-going career through which he has helped to preserve some of our nation’s greatest landmarks, as well as many of West Virginia’s historic treasures.
David’s career began in his home state of Ohio at the University of Cincinnati where he earned a Bachelor of Science in Architecture. Shortly after graduating, David was offered a job with the Veteran’s Administration renovating and modernizing hospitals and nursing home buildings. David’s network grew with his reputation, and job offers came pouring in until he left the Veteran’s Administration to work for a prominent firm in WashingtonD.C. David’s new employer was awarded the contract for the renovation of the OldState, War and NavyBuilding next to the White House, and he had assignments to work with some of the most elaborately decorated spaces in the building with superb structural, mechanical and electrical engineers.
Eventually, David started his own firm and his expertise with old and historic buildings made him a popular choice for United States Government agencies. David’s resume includes some of our nation’s most elaborate and famous monuments including the United States Capitol, the Lincoln Memorial, the Jefferson Memorial, the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery, the Department of Commerce Library, Dolley Madison’s House, and the Old Executive Office Building, to name only a few. Over the years, David has been recognized time and time again for his excellent work on projects like the Restoration of the 1879 Office of the Secretary, a project that included both restoration and replication of the ornate stenciled walls in the office, which has been occupied by every vice president since Lyndon Johnson.
David has not only achieved prominence in the Washington D.C. architectural world; he has also impacted historic preservation in West Virginia. Since he has made his home in Shepherdstown, West Virginia has benefited greatly from his residency. The infamous Marion County Courthouse in Fairmont and the historic Jefferson County Courthouse are well-known projects of his. Many may remember David’s influence on one of his favorite projects, the Metropolitan Theatre in downtown Morgantown.
David has also been involved in many nonprofit and community development organizations. He has been a friend of Preservation Alliance of WV since the late 1990s. He has also been a member of Historic Shepherdstown, where he served as the President from 2004-2006, as well as the Shepherdstown Planning Commission, Association for Preservation Technology International, the International Committee on Monuments and Sites, the Columbia Historic Society, and the Metropolitan Club of Washington D.C. David has reached exemplary status in the field of historic preservation.
The Arsenal Square site is historically significant as the storage facility for arms produced at the Federal Armory at Harpers Ferry begun during the last decade of the eighteenth century. The Arsenal was also the target of John Brown’s infamous raid in 1859 and is the current, although not original, location for the Armory Engine House; renamed “John Brown’s Fort” after Brown was captured there during the raid.
Arsenal Square is the location of the earliest NPS archeology in Harpers Ferry, starting in the late 1950s. A significant archeology collection from this early excavation is managed by the park’s museum staff. The site is also managed as a cultural landscape. An interdisciplinary approach has enabled the NPS to protect and preserve the archeology site, interpret the major structures from the Armory period, and provide access for park visitors. The site is far from static and has undergone a number of changes through the years. The decision-making process for the development of the site will be discussed and a question and answer session will be included.
Register for the PAWV conference today.
Early bird rates end September 14th.
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